Treatments provided by Sarah Clarke

Dr Clarke is an experienced cardiologist and treats all adult cardiac problems.   

Treatments, operations and tests

Coronary angiogram

A coronorary angiogram is an investigation of the coronary arteries using X rays. It is used to see whether your coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked by deposits of cholesterol or calcium. If left intreated, these blockages can cause heart failure. Before the test, a dye is injected to make the vessels of the heart more visibile and a catheter is inserted into the vessel.

Coronary angiography

A coronorary angiogram is an investigation of the coronary arteries using X rays. It is used to see whether your coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked by deposits of cholesterol or calcium. If left intreated, these blockages can cause heart failure. Before the test, a dye is injected to make the vessels of the heart more visibile and a catheter is inserted into the vessel.

Coronary angioplasty

A coronary angioplasty is a surgical procedure that is used to widen blocked or narrowed coronary arteries. Angioplasty involves using a catheter (a flexible tube) to insert a stent into the coronary artery. A stent is a short, hollow metal tube.

ECG - exercise (or stress)

An exercise ECG records the electrical activity of your heart whilst you exercise. This test is sometimes called an exercise stress test or exercise tolerance test. Small electrodes are stuck on to your chest. Wires from the electrodes are connected to the ECG machine. You will then be asked to exercise on a treadmill or on an exercise bike. The exercise starts at a very easy pace, and is gradually made more strenuous by increasing the speed and incline of the treadmill, or by putting some resistance on the bike wheel.

ECG - resting

The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart in exquisite detail. Interpretation of these details allows diagnosis of a wide range of heart conditions. These conditions can vary from minor to life threatening. The term electrocardiogram was introduced by Willem Einthoven in 1893. The process of performing an ECG involves attaching a series of electrodes to the patient's chest and limbs (usually with the patient lying down), and printing a recording on the ECG machine for interpretation by the specialist. It takes approximately 5 minutes to record a diagnostic ECG.

Echocardiogram

Echocardiogram is a diagnostic procedure that demonstrates the heart's function using ultrasound technology. It is sometimes referred to as an ECHO because a high-frequency sound is used for diagnosis. Echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo, or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart. (It is not abbreviated to ECG, which only refers to an electrocardiogram). Usually, echocardiography uses standard two-dimensional ultrasound images of the heart. However, there are also more specialised echo procedures such as dobutamine stress echos, transoesophageal echos and 3-D echos. Echocardiography has become routinely used in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of patients with any suspected or known heart diseases. It can provide a wealth of helpful information, including the size and shape of the heart, pumping capacity, and the location and extent of any tissue damage.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG from Greek: kardia, meaning heart) is a transthoracic (across the thorax or chest) interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body. The recording produced by this noninvasive procedure is termed an electrocardiogram (also ECG or EKG). An ECG is used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as the size and position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart, such as a pacemaker.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) 24 hours

An ECG – or electrocardiogram - is a simple and useful test which records the rhythm and electrical activity of your heart. An ECG can detect problems you may have with your heart rhythm. It can help doctors tell if you are having a heart attack or if you’ve had a heart attack in the past. Sometimes an ECG can indicate if your heart is enlarged or thickened. A 24-hour ECG helps to diagnose symptoms, such as palpitations, which only happen now and again. Sometimes it can show up an abnormal heart rhythm that might need treatment. It can also help reassure patients if the results are normal.

Shock treatment for irregular heartbeat (Defibrillation)

Cardioversion is a procedure used to treat abnormal heart rhythms (also called cardiac arrhythmias). The most commonly treated arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation. During cardioversion, an electrical "shock" is delivered to the heart to restore its rhythm to a normal pattern. The electrical energy can be delivered externally with electrodes placed on the chest or directly to the heart using paddles on the heart during an open chest surgery. Alternately, the energy can be delivered through the electrodes of a permanently implanted device called an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. If, however, you have ventricular dysynchrony, which means that the two lower chambers of your heart are not beating together and are unable to pump blood to the body effectively, then a cardiac resynchronisation device (CRT) may need to be implanted.

Unblocking of blood vessels in the heart

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), commonly known as coronary angioplasty is a therapeutic procedure to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease. These stenotic segments are due to the build up of cholesterol-laden plaques that form due to atherosclerosis. PCI is usually performed by an interventional cardiologist.Treatment with PCI for patients with stable coronary artery disease reduces chest pain, but does not reduce the risk of death, myocardial infarction, or other major cardiovascular events.

Features

I specialise in...

  • Chest pain, angina
  • Murmurs and valvular disease
  • Palpitation, arrhythmia
  • Dizziness and blackout
  • Shortness of breath
  • Heart failure
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Coronary angiography
  • Interventional cardiology