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Symptoms, diagnosis and causes of typhoid fever

Symptoms, diagnosis and causes of typhoid fever

Symptoms, diagnosis and causes of typhoid fever

Symptoms, diagnosis and causes of typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is a food borne infection endemic seen in the developing countries.

Incidence, age and sex

In developing countries the incidence is 100-1000 per100000 population.The incidence is higher in children and they are at higher risk of complications.

Signs and symptoms

In the first week there is fever, headache, myalgia, relative bradycardia, constipation, diarrhoea and vomiting in children .In the second week there are rose spots on trunk, splenomegaly, cough and abdominal distension. Blood culture is the most important diagnosis method in a suspected case. The widal reaction detects antibodies to the causative organism.

Causes and prevention

It is caused by infection with Salmonella Typhi and S. paratyphi A and B which is transmitted by the faecal-oral route. Improved sanitation and living conditions reduce the incidence of typhoid. Typhoid vaccine is also effective in prevention.

Complications

Complications of typhoid fever include bowel perforation and haemorrhage, bone and joint infection, meningitis, cholecystitis, myocarditis, nephritis.

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Symptoms, diagnosis and causes of typhoid fever

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