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Immunochemistry - Tests and Indications

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Test Fluid Normal Range* Turn around time* Indications
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Serum 1.4 - 3.4 g/L 24hrs Perinatal Jaundice
Juvenile Cirrhosis
Centrilobular Emphysema
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Faeces <5 mg/g up to 5 days Protein-losing enteropathy
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Serum MM pattern up to 5 days Indicated where levels are <1g/L
Phenotyping
Alpha-feto-protein Serum <20 mg/L up to 5 days Diagnosis and monitoring of Hepatoma/Teratoma
Alpha-feto-protein Amniotic Fluid 5-25 mg/L
(depends on gestational age)
72 hrs Pre-natal screening for neural tube defects/chromosomal abnormalities
Beta-2-Microglobulin Serum <4 mg/L up to 5 days HIV infection
Myeloma and lymphoreticular malignancy monitoring
Bence-Jones Protein Urine Negative up to 5 days Multiple Myeloma
Complement
C3 Serum 0.75 - 1.5 g/L 24 hrs Renal Disease, SLE, Immune complex disease, vasculitis, angioedema
C4 Serum 0.15 - 0.54 g/L
C1 esterase inhibitor Serum 0.18 - 0.28 g/L 24 hrs Hereditary angioedema
CH50 Serum 4 - 40 units/mL up to 5 days Hereditary complement deficiencies, recurrent meningitis, familial SLE
C3 Nephritic Serum Negative up to 5 days Mesangiocapillary GN Type II
C3 Degradation Products Serum Negative up to 5 days Complement consuming states eg, SLE
Other complement tests on discussion with lab up to 5 days
C-reactive protein Serum <4 mg/L 24 hrs Infection, inflammation tissue injury malignancy
Cryoglobulins Negative 48 hrs Cold-included
Skin/joint/renal disease
IgG/Total ratio CSF < 11% up to 5 days Demyelinating protein conditions, eg, MS
CSF Isoelectric focussing for oligocentral bands CSF Negative up to 5 days Demyelinating conditions, eg, MS
Other inflammatory states, eg, SLE, neurosarcoid
Electrophoresis/
IEP/Immunfix'n
Serum