Identifying which sectors of society are most likely to require bladder cancer treatment has been put under the spotlight.
Research conducted by staff at UT Southwestern Medical Center has underlined the challenges in orchestrating early screening.
Despite age, history of smoking and occupational exposure being analysed in the study, it was still difficult to identify the most at-risk groups.
The comprehensive screening of at-risk groups could lead to early detection of bladder cancer, prompt treatment and a better outcome for the patient.
Dr Yair Lotan, associate professor of urology and senior author of the study, commented: "At this time bladder cancer screening is not the standard of care.
"Although progress has been made in diagnosis, those efforts have translated into minimal survival benefit.
"In order to get the most benefit from the added cost of screening, we need to identify the appropriate population to screen."
Smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer, with one of the most common symptoms being blood in the urine.