Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) combined with superovulation using washed sperm is often effective in the case of mild abnormalities in sperm parameters.
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) requires fewer motile sperm because natural transport barriers are bypassed, and sperm come in contact with multiple oocytes from superovulation.
Intacytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) has revolutionized the treatment of severe male factor problems, especially when the sperm is surgically retrieved. One single sperm is injected into each egg, with a fertilisation rate of around 70%.
In severe cases of male factor infertility, azoospermia, or genetically transmitted diseases, Donor Sperm Insemination (DI) is an option.
Surgical Sperm Retrieval (SSR) is a technique for collecting immature sperm directly from the vas, epididymis or testes. Sperm retrieval may be performed under local anaesthetic or under general anaesthetic, especially during an operation to repair an obstruction in the vas. The sperm are withdrawn from the vas, epididymis and the testes using a fine needle and gentle suction.
Percutancous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration or Testicular Sperm Extraction may be used in cases where sperm are not found. A sample of tissue (testicular biopsy) can be taken from the testes through a small incision. Once the sperm have been collected fertilisation is achieved using ICSI. Excess sperm can be frozen for future use.
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