Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) was first introduced into clinical practice for certain types of infertility in 1992. It has revolutionized the treatment of severe male infertility.
ICSI is indicated when the sperm count is very low, when sperm cannot move properly or are in other ways morphologically abnormal and in cases of high levels of anti-sperm antibodies in the semen. ICSI may also be used when fertilisation has failed in previous IVF attempts, when there has been a repeatedly poor response to ovarian stimulation and when sperm have been surgically retrieved directly from the epididymis (PESA) or the testicles (TESA/TESE).
In this guide