Hip replacement surgery techniques are tried and tested and, although hip replacement carries some risks, it is regarded as one of the safest types of surgery to have. The risk of serious complications is low – estimated to be less than 1
in a 100. (NHS Choices). Surgeons still aim to improve how hip replacement is done – using longer-lasting materials and different fixing techniques for the hip prosthesis, for example.
One thing that orthopaedic specialists would certainly like to improve is the recovery and rehabilitation time for patients who have a hip replacement. The traditional surgical technique involves a long incision – 15 to 30cm is typical. The hip joint is prepared and the hip prosthesis is put in place with the whole joint exposed, so the surgeon can see exactly what is going on.
What is minimally invasive hip surgery?
This is a pioneering technique that has become possible thanks to advances in technology. It is now possible for orthopaedic surgeons to use X-ray and imaging assisted equipment that show pictures of the inside of the joint in real time on a large computer screen in the operating theatre. This enables them to position the hip prosthesis without completely opening the joint. Instead, they work from two much smaller incisions, preparing the damaged bone of the joint and inserting the hip prosthesis using a type of keyhole hip replacement surgery.
The benefits of minimally invasive hip surgery
major advantages of minimally invasive hip surgery is that patients experience
less blood loss, less pain after surgery and a lower level of surgical
complications. They need to spend less time in hospital and their recovery
and rehabilitation time is shorter. This is mainly because this method of hip
replacement has less impact on the muscles that support the hip joint.
Is minimally invasive hip surgery good in the long term?
hip replacement that involves less disruption to the tissues of the hip joint
is beneficial in the short term, we do not yet know the long term results. Use
of minimally-invasive surgery is greatest in cementless procedures, although it
was used in less than 5% of all hip replacements. However, there is no data
available that compares pain levels, mobility and quality of life in the longer
term and some experts believe that traditional hip replacement still allows the
hip prosthesis to be positioned more accurately during surgery.
For this reason, minimally
invasive hip surgery is not routinely offered at most centres in the UK. The
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
has reviewed the evidence from clinical trials of the technique. The systematic review of 1205
patients reported that:
- “the overall rate of complications was not
significantly different between patients treated by minimally invasive surgery
and those who had standard-incision procedures.”
- “there was no significant difference in the
mean change of Harris hip score (which assesses functional ability and hip
dynamics)…. in patients treated by mini-incision total hip replacement compared
with those treated by the standard-incision approach.”