Echo Bubble / Contrast Study
A link has been documented that a 'hole in the heart' can be a potential cause of small strokes or nasty migraines.
A patent foramen ovale can be difficult to distinguish by echo alone, but administering of agitated saline solution can easily identify this.
If indicated the patient can undergo a simple procedure to close the defect.
These tests are non-invasive but involve a needle to administer fluids for the procedure.