The genetic profiling starts with taking a DNA sample, from either a a swab from the mouth, blood or other fluids or tissues from the individual. The DNA sample or ‘loci’ is then amplified by PCR. The amplified genetic segments are separated and identified by a process called electrophoresis.
In parental screening, specific DNA segments or loci are compared with the presumed parent loci. If they match, the test confirms the genetic link between the child and presumed parent.
The types of paternal DNA tests available 
Chain of custody parental DNA testing
This process helps ensure that the results will be legally
defensible in court, should the individuals ever need their results for legal
purposes (such as obtaining child support).
The chain of custody process satisfies legal requirements by
proving the following:
- The DNA samples were collected by a neutral third party -
someone who has no personal interest in the outcome of the test. This neutral
third party is normally a doctor or nurse.
- The tested parties were positively identified at the time of
sample collection. To be positively identified, a tested individual must
present a government-issued photo ID and be thumb printed.
- The collected DNA samples were made tamper-resistant. The
samples are tamper-taped at the collection site and are posted to our
laboratory in secure packaging. Upon arrival at the laboratory, the samples are
carefully inspected for any evidence of tampering.
When attending a DNA sample collection appointment, the
patient will be required:
- To present government-issued photo identification
- To present identification (such as a birth certificate) for
any tested minors for whom the have parental responsibility
- To complete a Client Identification and Consent Form. If the
patient have parental responsibility for a tested minor, they will be asked to
complete a consent form for the child as well
- To be thumb printed and/or photographed.
Peace of mind paternity testing
Peace of mind parental testing is used to satisfy personal
curiosity about the paternity of a child.
The results from this test are not legally defensible, and therefore
cannot be used for legal purposes.
Non-invasive prenatal genetic testing
Non-invasive prenatal genetic testing incorporates DNA
technology by preserving and analysing the foetus DNA that is found within the
mother's bloodstream. The test is highly accurate and results are available
within eight working days. The test is simple, only requiring a blood sample
from the mother and presumed father.
This early test is available from the ninth week of
pregnancy onwards. This test requires modern and sophisticated genetic
technology, which only a very specialised
centres can provide.
Other genetic tests
Ancestry test - find out about your DNA genealogy going back
thousands of years
Siblingship testing from DNA - helps two individuals verify
whether they are full or half siblings
Twin zygosity DNA testing - determines whether twin siblings
are identical twins or fraternal twins
Y-chromosome DNA - determines whether two or more males are
biologically related through their father's side of the family.
Mitochondrial DNA - a type of DNA that is found in the
mitochondria of every human living cell which produces the energy for each
cell. Mitochondrial DNA is passed from a mother to her children, making it
useful for tracing individuals’ maternal lineage. Both male and female direct
descent inherit mtDNA from their mother, but only females can pass their mtDNA
to their children.
-  Jeffreys A.J., Wilson V., Thein S.W. (1984). "Hypervariable
'minisatellite' regions in human DNA". Nature 314: 67–73
-  The effects of business practices, licensing, and
intellectual property on development and dissemination of the polymerase chain
reaction: case study
- Joe Fore 1,
Ilse R Wiechers 1
2 and Robert
- Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration 2006, 1:7 doi:10.1186/1747-5333-1-7
-  DNA Profiling, Wikipedia
-  DNA
Diagnostic Centre UK
About Alio Healthcare
Healthcare is a private GP clinic that provides
patient-centred, personal attention in the Merseyside, Wirral and Cheshire
areas. It offers private medical services such as DNA testing, health
screenings, Well Woman, Well Man, Sexual Health and private GP consultations
without the constraints of NHS budgets and policies.
Contact: Dr Nigel Chatwin, Alio Healthcare, 29 Great George
Square, Liverpool L1 5DZ, United Kingdom firstname.lastname@example.org.
Alio Healthcare offers genetic testings
in conjunction with DNA Diagnostic Centre UK.